Sunday, January 19, 2020
Workplace Spirituality :: Religion, Work
Workplace spirituality is a sophisticated concept (Kinjerski & Skrypnek, 2004). Generally speaking, it involves the sense of well-being, the feeling of the whole self involved in the work, the feeling of connection to others and something larger than oneself, and a sense of transcendence (Ashmos & Duchon, 2000; Ingersoll, 2010; Kinjerski & Skrypnek, 2004; Kinjerski, V. M., & Skrypnek, 2008; Rego & Pina e Cunha, 2008; Sheep, 2004). Individuals view their work as sacred (Ingersoll, 2010), while workplace spirituality is not necessary related to religion (Ashmos & Duchon, 2000; Krishnakumar & Neck, 2002; Milliman et al., 2003; Rego & Pina e Cunha, 2008). It can be regard to personal value or philosophy. This concept can be referred to self-actualization proposed by MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s (1954) hierarchy of needs. Besides pursuing satisfaction of the basic levels in the hierarchy, individuals have desire to satisfy the higher level of need. Although earning money is the basic goal, individuals eager to find out the meaning in work, to make contribution to the society, to reach their full potential, to become connecting with colleagues, to work in an organization which they identify its goal and value (Kinjerski & Skrypnek, 2004). Although a consistent definition in workplace spirituality has not been reached, mutuality in its definition delineated in literatures can be easily found. Sheep (2004) has been summed up into four themes. The first theme is self-workplace integration, that is the immersion of whole self into work. The second theme is meaning of work. People tend to find out meaning in their work. The meaning may be related to personal value, such as contributing to society and others, and go beyond monetary benefits. The third one is transcendence of self, connecting to something larger than self. This theme includes the connectedness to others, community, and the organization. The final theme is Ã¢â¬Å"personal growth and development of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s inner life at workÃ¢â¬ . Organization can provide conditions for the growth and development of employees. Despite various perspectives about workplace spirituality, three dimensions were focused in the present study. The model proposed by Milliman et al. (2003) was adopted. In this model, workplace spirituality includes three levels, namely individual, community and organization. This model embraces two above mentioned theme such as meaning of work and transcendence of self. In the individual level of workplace spirituality, meaningfulness in work is involved in this level. People are motivated to actively search for and give meaning to their lives (Ashmos & Duchon, 2000; Frankl, 1992; Lips-Wiersma & Morris, 2009).