Tuesday, October 22, 2019
Tuskegee Experiment Essays
Tuskegee Experiment Essays Tuskegee Experiment Essay Tuskegee Experiment Essay Cole Deck Mr. Russell English 10a 6 March 2012 Tuskegee Experiments This is possibly one of the most inhumane things to ever happen in the 20th century in the Untied States. The experiments that took place were the root of medical misconduct and blatant disregard for human rights that took place in the name of science. The ghastly medical expirements that took place between 1932 and 1972 was merely an observation of the different stages of syphilis. The men in these experiments for the most part were illiterate and from one of the poorest parts of Alabama. The men were also never told the disease they were suffering from the U. S Public Health Service told them they were being tested for Ã¢â¬Å"bad blood. Ã¢â¬ They were only watching the disease devour these unknowing men alive. If syphilis is untreated in such conditions, it can cause tumors, heart disease, paralysis, blindness, insanity, and death (drum). If the patients knew of the nature of the experiments, to ensure their complete cooperation. They were persuaded by free medical care for minor ailments, a hot meal, and fifty dollars for their time. Hardly any of these men have never been to see a doctor of any kind. The unsophisticated men were easy to manipulate and lie to, thus allowing the doctors to observe it without any question, which allowed it to reach the point of pure calamity. To the medical government, these men where only pawns in their chess game (drum). Eventually, penicillin was a standard cure for the disease, but was withheld from the men, because the scientist at Tuskegee wanted to continue the experiments to see how it spreads and kills (NPR). Tuskegee patients were put through hell for decades, the scientist saw them as animals in a lab. They reasoned that the knowledge gained would benefit humankind. Researchers could study the natural progression of the disease as long as they did not harm their subjects. Three hundred ninety nine black men were recruited for the trial, and 201 without syphilis as a control group. Reported from 1946 to 1948 American scientists intentionally infected prisoners, soldiers, and mental patients with syphilis. Almost 700 people had been exposed to syphilis without willing consent. After the subjects contracted this disease they were given antibiotics, but it was not noted that all parties were fully cured (Time). The aftermath of these experiments were atrocious. Out of the original 399, 28 had died of syphilis, 100 died of related complications, and 40 of their wives had been infected and 19 of their children had been born with congenital syphilis (NPR). One of the original doctors had admitted it Ã¢â¬Å"was necessary to carry on this study under the symbol of a demonstration and provide the treatmentÃ¢â¬ (drum). The men were given the remedies for syphilis everyday, bismuth, neoarsphenamine, and mercury, but in such small amounts that only 3 percent showed any improvement (drum). The medicine prescribed didnt interfere with the initial study. Eventually they replaced all those remedies with aspirin. Plus to keep the attention of the subjects they sent out a promotional letter, that said it was the last chance for free medical treatment. Another doctor explained that if the patients become aware that accepting the free medical resulted in post-mortem, then they would lose all of their patients. Even the Surgeon General of America assisted in luring black men with syphilis to remain in the experiments, by sending them letters of appreciation after 25 years into the study (drum). Its not hard to assume that all of the government officials were racist, but they do you explain the local black collaborating doctors, people participated in these trial and error procedures (drum). The most know black nurse is Eunice Rivers. She explained on a report that her role was only passive obedient, she explained that she was only following doctors orders. Having her on their side was only helping gain trust within the black community in Alabama (drum). In 1973 the NAACP filed for a nine million dollar lawsuit, the money was divided upon the remaining patients who either survived or were affected unfairly. The case never came to trial until December, 1974, the government agreed to a $10 million out of court settlement. The living victims from the experiments each received 37,500 in damages, the living family members of the deceased, received 15,000 dollars (drum). The medical doctors involved in these experiments never apologized or admitted to any wrong doing. In 1990, a survey showed that 10 percent of African Americans believed that the United States government created AIDS as a plan to eliminate blacks, and another 20 percent could not rule out that this could possibly be true. As absurd and neurotic as this may sound, at one time the Tuskegee experiment must have seemed equally bizarre (Time). Who would think that the government, all the way up to the Surgeon General of the United States, deliberately allowing a group of its citizens to die from an awful disease for the behalf of a preposterous experiment (drum)? With this in mind and many other embarrassing occurrences in our history, African Americans far-flung mistrust of the government and white society in general should not be a shock to anyone (drum). It wasnt until 1997 that the government formally apologized for the corrupt study. President Clinton conveyed the apology, saying what the government had done was genuinely, thoroughly and morally wrong (NPR). Bill Clinton had stated in the apology, Ã¢â¬Å"To the survivors, to the wives and family members, the children and the grandchildren. What was done cannot be undone. But we can end the silence. We can stop turning our heads away. We can look at you in the eye and finally say, on behalf of the American people: what the United States government did was shameful. Ã¢â¬ (NPR). Remembering the Tuskegee E. NPR. NPR. Web. npr. org/programs/morning/features/2002/jul/tuskegee/. Time Magazine. Web. time. com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,2024238,00. html. THE TUSKEGEE SYPHILIS EXPERIMENT. THE TALKING DRUM. Web. 08 Mar. 2012. http://thetalkingdrum. com/tus. html.