Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) is a Safe Treatment for Mental Disorder
A.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Thesis Statement Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a treatment for severe mental illness in which the brain is stimulated with a strong electrical current which induces a seizure. The seizure rearranges the brain's neurochemistry and results in an elevation of mood. This essay asks: Is ECT any safer and more effective in treating mood disorders than drug therapies? This treatment has a controversial history ever since it was first introduced in 1938. I intend to argue that electroconvulsive therapy is indeed a safe treatment of mental disorders when other treatments have failed. Due to the development of safer and less traumatic ways of administering ECT, the treatment has made a comeback, is greatly used, and proves to be effective. B.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Historical Context The original use of electricity as a cure for Ã¢â¬Å"insanityÃ¢â¬ dates back to the beginning of the 16th century when electric fish were used to treat headaches. Electroconvulsive therapy on humans originates from research in the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s into the effects of camphor-induced seizures in people with schizophrenia (Guttmacher, 1994). In 1938, two Italian researchers, Ugo Cerletti and Lucio Bini, were the first to use an electric current to induce a seizure in a delusional, hallucinating, schizophrenic man. The man fully recovered after eleven treatments. This led to a rapid spread of the use of ECT as a way to induce therapeutic convulsions in the mentally ill. Lothar Kalinowsky, Renato Almansi, and Victor Gonda are further responsible in spreading ECT from Italy to North America (Endler, 1988). Although there is some confusion as to who exactly is credited for administering the first ECT in America, it is known that it occurred in the early 1940. When ECT was first introduced, it was a terrifying and hazardous procedure: patients suffered serious side effects, even breaking a bone from convulsions (Nairne, Smith & Lindsay, 2001). It has been criticized since its beginnings, and only recently it has begun to be seen more positively. The major reason for this is the fact that the treatment went through significant changes over the years Ã¢â¬â it is now much safer than before. Nowadays, patients are given a general anaesthetic and medications that relax the muscles to prevent injuries from occur. However, most professionals still consider it to be a treatment of last resort. It is used when people have shown... ...epressive disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet, 361(9360), 799-808. Gerard G. G., Furman, M. J., Carpenter, L. L., et al. (December 2000). Efficacy of continuation ECT and antidepressant drugs compared to long-term antidepressants alone in depressed patients. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 1960-1965. Guttmacher, L. B. (1994). Concise Guide to Psychopharmacology and Electroconvulsive Therapy. Washington: American Psychiatric Press Inc. Nairne, J. S., Smith, M. S., and Lindsay, D. S. (2001). Psychology: The Adaptive Mind. Scarborough: Nelson Thomson Learning. Reisner, A D. (2003). The electroconvulsive therapy controversy: evidence and ethics. Neuropsychology Review, 13(4), 199-219. Vothknecht, S., Kho, K. H., van Schaick, H. W., et al. (September 2004). Effects of maintenance electroconvulsive therapy on cognitive functions. Journal of ECT, 19(3), 151-157. Weiner R. D., & Krystal, A.D. (February 1994). The present use of electroconvulsive therapy. Annual Review of Medicine, 45, 273-281. (2001). The Practice of Electroconvulsive Therapy: Recommendations for Treatment, Training, and privileging (2nd Ed). American Psychiatric Association.